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"In many instances the theory falls short of its goals, but a useful purpose will have been served if a new focus stimulates further search for an even more effective and comprehensive theory... Truth like infinity, is to be forever approached but never reached " (p.4) Ayres, 1972

Sensory integration has been the subject of more research than any other approach within the field of occupational therapy (Parham & Mailloux, 2001). For many years, it has been one of the most frequently applied frames of reference used by paediatric occupational therapists (Mulligan, 2002).

Hopscotch is dedicated to integrating cutting-edge research with clinical practice. In 2004 Dimitrios completed a major ethnographic study on the clinical reasoning processes of paediatric occupational therapists. His work has been presented in several workshops and most recently in the European Conference of Qualitative Research in Bournemouth (August, 2006). Dimitrios has also completed postgraduate studies in the field of Childhood Anthropology at Brunel University and in 2010 hw will commence studies in Neurosciences in the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College in London.

This section aims at promoting public awareness of the research conducted in the field of sensory integration. The main objective is to familiarise visitors with published scientific research and trigger further reflection among parents, educators, students, researchers, and other professionals. Please click on one of the titles to expand its contents

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The Legacy of A. Jean Ayres


Ayres, A. J. (1961) Development of the body scheme in children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 15, 99-104.

Ayres, A. J. (1963) The Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lecture: The development of perceptual-motor abilities: a theoretical basis for treatment of dysfunction. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 17, 221-226.

Ayres, A. J. (1964) Tactile functions: their relations to hyperactive and perceptual-motor behaviour. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 18, 6-11.

Ayres, A. J. (1965) Patterns of perceptual-motor dysfunction in children: A factor analytic study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 20, 335-368.

Ayres, A. J. (1966a) Interrelations among perceptual-motor abilities in a group of normal children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 20, 288-292.

Ayres, A. J. (1966b) Interrelations among perceptual-motor functions in children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 20, 68-71.

Ayres, A. J., & Reid, W. (1966) The self-drawing as an expression of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Cortex, 2, 254-265.

Ayres, A. J. (1969a) Deficits in sensory integration in educationally handicapped children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2, 160-168.

Ayres, A. J. (1969b) Relation between Gessell developmental quotients and later perceptual-motor performance. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 23, 11-17.

Ayres, A. J. (1971) Characteristics of types of sensory integrative dysfunction. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 25, 329-334.

Ayres, A. J. (1972a) Sensory Integration and Learning Disorders. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Ayres, A. J. (1972b) Types of sensory integrative dysfunction among disabled learners. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 26, 13-18.

Ayres, A. J. (1972c) Improving academic scores through sensory integration. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5, 338-343.

Ayres, A. J. (1975) Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services..

Ayres, A. J. (1976) The Effect of Sensory Integrative Therapy on Learning Disabled Children: The Final Report of a Research Project. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

Ayres, A. J. (1977) Cluster analyses of measures of sensory integration. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 31, 362-366.

Ayres, A. J. (1978) Learning disorders and the vestibular system. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11, 18-29.

Ayres, A. J. (1979) Sensory Integration and the Child. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Ayres, A. J., & Tickle, L. (1980) Hyper-responsivity to touch and vestibular stimulation as a predictor of responsivity to sensory integrative procedures in autistic children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 34, 375-381.

Ayres, A. J. (1985) Developmental Dyspraxia and Adult-Onset Apraxia. Torrance, CA: Sensory Integration International.

Ayres, A. J., Mailloux, Z. K., & Wendler, C. L. W. (1987) Developmental Dyspraxia: Is it a Unitary Function? Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 7, 93-110.

Ayres, A. J. (1989) Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
 

Current Evidence of Effectiveness


Bundy, A.C., Shia, S., Qi, L., & Miller, L.J. (2007) How does sensory processing dysfunction affect play? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 201-208.

Davies, P.L. & Gavin, W.J. (2007) Validating the diagnosis of sensory processing disorders with EEG technology. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 176-189.

Hall. L. & Case-Smith, J. (2007) The effect of sound-based intervention on children with sensory processing disorders and visual-motor delays. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 209-215.

Mailloux, Z., May-Benson, T.A., Summers, C.A., Miller, L.J., Brett-Green, B., Burke, J.P., Cohn, E.S., Koomar, J.A., Parham, L.D., Smith Roley, S.S., Schaaf, R.C., & Schoen, S.A. (2007) Goal attainment scaling as a measure of meaningful outcomes for children with sensory modulation disorders. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 254-259.

May-Benson, T.A. & Cermark, S.A. (2007) Development of an assessment of ideational praxis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 148-153.

May-Benson, T.A. & Koomar, J.A. (2007) Identifying gravitational insecurity in children: a pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 142-147.

Miller, L.J., Anzalone, M.E., Lane, S.J., Cermark, S.A., & Osten, E.T. (2007) Concept evolution in sensory integration: a proposed nosology for diagnosis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 135-140.

Miller, L.J., Coll, J.R., & Schoen, S.A. (2007) A randomised control pilot study of the effectiveness of occupational therapy for children with sensory modulation disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 228-238.

Miller, L.J., Schoen, S.A., James, K.& Schaaf, R.C. (2007) Lessons learned: a pilot study on occupational therapy effectiveness for children with sensory modulation disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 161-169.

Miller-Kuhaneck, H., Henry, D.A., Glennon, T.J., & Mu, K. (2007) Development of the sensory processing measure – school: initial studies of reliability and validity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 170-175.

Parham, L.D., Cohn, E.S., Spitzer, S., Koomar, J.A., Miller, L.J., Burke, J.P., Brett-Green, B., Mailloix, Z., May-Benson, T.A., Smith Roley, S., Schaaf, R.C., Schoen, S.A., & Summers, C.A. (2007) Fidelity in Sensory Integration Intervention Research. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 216-227.

Prudhomme White, B., Mulligan, S., Merrill, K., & Wright J. (2007) An examination of the relationships between motor and process skills and scores on the sensory profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 154-160.

Schaaf, R.C. & McKeon Nightlinger, K. (2007) Occupational therapy using a sensory integrative approach: a case study of effectiveness. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 239-246.

Schneider, M.L., Moore, C.F., Gajewski, L.L., Laughlin, N.K., Larson, J.A., Gay, C.L., Roberts, A.D., Converse, A.K., & DeJeus, O.T. (2007) Sensory processing disorders in a nonhuman primate model: evidence for occupational therapy practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 247-253.

Tomcheck, S.D. & Dunn, W. (2007) Sensory processing in children with and without autism: a comparative study using the short sensory profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 190-200.
 

Research Examining the Efficacy of Sensory Integration


Allen, S. & Donald, M. (1995) The effect of occupational therapy on the motor proficiency of children with motor/learning difficulties: a pilot Study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58, 385-391.

Ayres, A. J. (1969) Deficits in sensory integration in educationally handicapped children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2, 160-168.

Ayres, A. J. (1971) Characteristics of types of sensory integrative dysfunction. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 25, 329-334.

Ayres, A. J. (1972a) Types of sensory integrative dysfunction among disabled learners. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 26, 13-18.

Ayres, A. J. (1972b) Improving academic scores through sensory integration. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5, 338-343.

Ayres, A. J. (1976) The Effect of Sensory Integrative Therapy on Learning Disabled Children: The Final Report of a Research Project. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

Ayres, A. J. (1977) Cluster analyses of measures of sensory integration. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 31, 362-366.

Ayres, A. J. (1979) Sensory Integration and the Child. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Ayres, A. J., Mailloux, Z. K., & Wendler, C. L. W. (1987) Developmental Dyspraxia: Is it a Unitary Function? Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 7, 93-110.

Ayres, A. J. (1989) Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Cohn, E., Tickle-Degnen, & Miller, L.J. (2000) Parental hopes for therapy outcomes: children with sensory modulation disorders. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54, 36-43.

Cummins, R. (1991) Sensory integration and learning disabilities: Ayres’ factor analysis reappraised. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 160-168.

Dematio-Feldman, D. (1994) Somatosensory processing abilities of very low-birth weight infants at school age. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48, 639-645.

Dunn, W. (1988) Models of occupational therapy service provision in the school system. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 718-723.

Dunn, W. (1990) A comparison of service provision models in school-based occupational therapy services. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 10, 300-320.

Dunn, W. (1997) The impact of sensory processing abilities on the daily lives of young children and their families. Infants and Young Children, 9, 23-35.

Hoehn, T. & Baumeister, A. (1994) A critique of the application of sensory integration therapy to children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 338-350.

Humphries, T., Wright, M., Snider, L. & McDougall, B. (1992) A comparison of the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy and perceptual-motor training in treating children with learning disabilities. Journal of developmental and Behavioral Paediatrics, 13, 31-40.

Kaplan, B., Polatajko, H., Wilson, B., & Faris, P. (1993) Reexamination of sensory integration intervention: a combination of two efficacy studies. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 342-347.

Lai, J., Fisher, A., Magalheas, L., & Bundy, A. (1996) Construct validity of the sensory integration and praxis tests. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 16, 75-97.

Missiuma, C. & Polatjako, H. (1995) Developmental dyspraxia by any other name: are they all just clumsy children? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49, 619-627.

Mulligan, S. (1996) An analysis of score patterns of children with attention disorders on the sensory integration and praxis tests. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50, 647-654.

Mulligan, S. (1998) Patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction: a confirmatory factor analysis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 819-828.

Mulligan, S. (2000) Cluster analysis of scores of children on the sensory integration and praxis tests. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20, 256-270.

Ottenbacher, K. (1982) Sensory integration therapy: affect or effect? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36, 571-578.
Polatjako, H., Kaplan, B., & Wilson, B. (1992) Sensory integration intervention for children with learning disabilities: its status 20 years later. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 12, 323-341.

Polatjako, H., Law, M., Miller, J., Schaffer, R., & Mcnab, J. (1991) The effect of a sensory integration program on academic achievement, motor performance, and self-esteem in children identified as learning disabled: results of a clinical trial. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 11, 155-176.

Tickle-Degnen, L. (1988) Perspectives on the status of sensory integration theory. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 427-433.

Tickle-Degnen, L. & Coster, W. (1995) Therapeutic interaction and the management of challenge during the beginning minutes of sensory integration intervention. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 15, 122-141.

Varga, S. & Camilli, G. (1999) A meta-analysis of research on sensory integration intervention. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 189-198.

Wilson, B. & Kaplan, B. (1994) Follow-up assessment of children receiving sensory integration intervention. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 14, 244-266.

Wilson, B., Kaplan, B. Fellowes, S., Gruchy, C., & faris, P. (1992) The efficacy of sensory integration compared to tutoring. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 12, 1-37.
 

Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests


Ayres, A. J. (1989) Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Bowman, O.J. & Wallace, B.A. (1990) The effects of socioeconomic status on hand size and strength, vestibular function, visuomotor integration, and praxis in preschool children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 610-622.

Cermark, S.A. & Murray, E.A. (1991) The validity of the constructional subtests of the sensory integration and praxis tests. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45, 539-543.

Cermark, S.A., Morris, M.L., & Koomar, J. (1990) Praxis on verbal command and imitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 641-646.

Fanchiang, S.P., Snyder, C., Zobel-Lachiusa, J., Bartolo Loeffer, C., & Thompson, M.E. (1990) Sensory integrative processing in delinquent-prone and non-delinquent-prone adolescents. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 630-640.
Kimball, J.G. (1990) Using the sensory integration and praxis tests to measure change: a pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 603-609.

Lai, J., Fisher, A., Magalheas, L., & Bundy, A. (1996) Construct validity of the sensory integration and praxis tests. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 16, 75-97.

Mailloux, Z. (1990) An overview of the sensory integration and praxis tests. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 589-595.

McAtee, S. & Mack, W. (1990) Relations between design copying and other tests of sensory integration: a pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 596-602.

Mulligan, S. (1996) An analysis of score patterns of children with attention disorders on the sensory integration and praxis tests. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50, 647-654.

Mulligan, S. (1998) Patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction: a confirmatory factor analysis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 819-828.

Mulligan, S. (2000) Cluster analysis of scores of children on the sensory integration and praxis tests. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20, 256-270.

Murray, E.A., Cermark, S.A., & O’Brien, V. (1990) The relationship between form and space perception, constructional abilities, and clumsiness in children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 623-629.

Wiss, T. & Clark, F. (1990) The issue is – validity of the southern California postrotary nystagmus test: misconceptions lead to incorrect conclusions. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 658-661.
 

Research in Brain, Behaviour, and Cognition


Arbib, M.A. & Érdi, P. (2000) Précis of neural organisation: structure, function, and dynamics. Behavioral and brain Sciences, 23, 513-571.

Bar-gad, I., Morris, G., & Bergman, H. (2003) Information processing, dimensionality reduction and reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia. Progress in Neurobiology, 71, 439-473.

Bennett, M.R. & Hacker, P.M.S. (2001) Perception and memory in neuroscience: a conceptual analysis. Progress in Neurobiology, 65, 499-543.

Bennett, M.R. & Hacker, P.M.S. (2002) The motor system in neuroscience: a history and analysis of conceptual developments. Progress in Neurobiology, 67, 1-52.

Castro-Alamancos, M.A. (2004) Dynamics of sensory thalamocortical synaptic networks during information processing states. Progress in Neurobiology, 74, 213-247.

Dumas, T.C. (2005) Developmental regulation of cognitive abilities: modified composition of a molecular switch turns on associative learning. Progress in Neurobiology, 76, 189-211.

Pan, W.X. & McNaughton, N. (2004) The supramammillary area: its organisation, functions, and relationship to the hippocampus. Progress in Neurobiology, 74, 127-166.

Sagvoden, T., Aase, H., Johansen, E.B. & Russell, V.A. (2005) A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/ impulsive and combined subtypes. Behavioral and brain Sciences, 28, 397-468.

Stoffregen, T.A. & Bardy, B.G. (2001) On specification and the senses. Behavioral and brain Sciences, 24, 195-261.
Taylor, J.G. (2003) Paying attention to consciousness. Progress in Neurobiology, 71, 305-335.

Temel, Y., Blokland, A., Steinbusch, H.W.M., & Visser-Vandewalle, V. (2005) The functional role of the subthalamic nucleus in cognitive and limbic circuits. Progress in Neurobiology (in press).

Tsuda. I. (2001) Toward an interpretation of dynamic neural activity in terms of chaotic dynamical systems. Behavioral and brain Sciences, 24, 793-847.